Despite a turbulent history with several military coups, short for GH by Abbreviationfinder, Ghana is now a relatively stable democracy. Multiparty systems prevail, but the country’s electoral laws make two political parties dominate. The left is the heir to the country father Kwame Nkrumah, while the right has its origin in the opposition to him.
The 1992 Constitution states that Ghana is a republic with multi-party systems. The executive power lies with the president, who is head of state, government and commander-in-chief. The President appoints a Vice President and elects his own government, which must, however, be approved by Parliament (see below).
- Countryaah: Total population and chart of Ghana for years of 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023 and 2024. Also covers population density, birth rate, death rate and population growth rates.
The president is elected for a term of four years in direct, general elections. Re-election can be done once. Victory in the first round requires at least half of the votes, otherwise a second round is held between the two candidates who received the most votes.
The Legislative Parliament consists of a House whose 275 members are elected in four years by a majority vote in one-man constituencies. In addition, there Government (Council of State), consisting of 25 members designated by the president or regional governments (see below) and the National Security (National Security Council) with 20 members. Both agencies are advisory to the president.
Administratively, Ghana is divided into ten regions with each regional government. At the local level there are 216 districts, governed by local parishes. In addition, a large number of chieftains also have political influence in the village communities.
The political parties must not be religious, geographically or ethnically based. Two political camps dominate: successors to socialist father Kwame Nkrumah (see Modern history) and right-wing political parties that had their base among the opposition to Nkrumah. The system of majority voting contributes to Ghana having a two-party system in practice. Small parties and individual politicians sometimes change sides. The parties that exist today arose in connection with the reintroduction of democracy and civil rule in 1992.
The large party of the Nkrumah Falang is the National Democratic Congress (NDC). It is now known as Social Democratic and developed from Jerry John Rawling’s Socialist-inspired military regime 1982-1992. NDC and Rawlings won in the 1992 and 1996 elections, and Rawlings also later retained influence in the party. The military regime’s bad reputation and allegations of corruption have sunk the image of the NDC. The party mainly seeks its support in the Volta region and the northern part of the country.
NDC candidate John Evans Atta Mills won the presidential election in 2008. A few months before the 2012 presidential election, Mills quickly passed away and was succeeded by Vice President John Dramani Mahama, who then won the presidential election later that year.
On the opponent side, the right-wing, market-liberal New Patriotic Party (NPP), which ruled Ghana in 2000–2008, dominates with party leader John Agyekum Kufuor as president. Previously, the Right had only held power for a short period (1969–1972). NPP’s candidate in the 2012 presidential election was Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo, a former foreign minister. The party is strongest in southern Ghana.
Essentially sulky is also the People’s National Unity (People’s National Convention, PNC). A party that expects to Nkrumah camp’s Coalition People’s Party (Convention People’s Party, CPP), which still supported the NPP in the elections in 2000 and 2004. The CPP, which was Nkrumah’s party in the 1960s, “resurrected” by the merger of two parties in 1998. Now CPP is led by Nkrumah’s daughter Samia Yaba Nkrumah, who is Ghana’s first female party leader.
Oil exports are modest but growing
Revenues from oil exports amount to approximately two million dollars during the period January – September. During the same period, Ghana’s costs of importing oil, oil products and natural gas are around $ 2.2 billion.
Oil production is increasing
Oil production at the Jubilee field off the coast of Ghana is now at 77,000 barrels a day. British company Tullow Oil invests around $ 4 billion in Ghana’s oil industry.
Investments in natural gas
Ghana borrows $ 3 billion from China’s development bank to finance the development of the natural gas industry.
Mills is elected NDC presidential candidate
At the ruling NDC Party Congress, challenger Nana Rawlings receives only a few percent of delegates’ votes in the election of presidential candidate, while incumbent President Mills receives 97 percent of the vote.
Mills is being challenged ahead of the 2012 presidential election
Nana Konadu Rawlings, wife of President Jerry Rawlings, challenges Mills in the ruling party NDC’s election of candidate in the 2012 presidential election.