The organization of telephone services in Italy consists of an interregional and international network reserved for state management; of urban networks and an interurban and international network of secondary importance managed by private industry. The long-distance telephone network managed by the state administration was made up almost exclusively, before 1922, of overhead lines that did not provide sufficient guarantees of both communication stability and good hearing. Between 1922 and 1932 a vast program of underground communications was studied and implemented by means of cables conveying a large number of lines: a complete network of direct communications was thus created between the most distant centers: 18 between Rome and Naples, 8 between Rome and Florence, 17 between Rome and Milan, 8 between Genoa and Rome, 8 between Bologna and Rome, 4 between Turin and Naples, 4 between Milan and Naples, 4 between Venice and Milan, 3 between Venice and Rome, 5 between Bologna and Milan. At the same time, the telephone service with Sardinia was activated first by means of a radio bridge consisting of short waves with a 9 meter long beam, then by means of a submarine cable (the longest existing submarine telephone communication) activated on 28 October 1931 and which allows you to make, in addition to telephone communication, also two telegraphic communications in duplicate. The cable section between Naples and Bari will soon be put into operation, while work continues on the laying and commissioning of the Naples-Reggio-Messina-Catania-Palermo section. in addition to telephone communication, also two telegraphic communications in duplicate. The cable section between Naples and Bari will soon be put into operation, while work continues on the laying and commissioning of the Naples-Reggio-Messina-Catania-Palermo section. in addition to telephone communication, also two telegraphic communications in duplicate. The cable section between Naples and Bari will soon be put into operation, while work continues on the laying and commissioning of the Naples-Reggio-Messina-Catania-Palermo section.
The concessionary companies in the area also contributed to the development and improvement of interurban communications: STIPEL, with the activation of an underground cable between Turin-Milan and the lakes area; the TIMO, with the cable between Bologna and Ancona; the TETI with the cable connection of Savona, Genoa, La Spezia, Lucca, Pisa, Pistoia, Livorno, Florence.
In 1922 the Italian telephone network included 20 inter-national and 1470 interurban circuits, with an overall development of 74,500 kilometers of circuit. In 1932 (June 30) there were 115 international circuits and 5,535 interurban circuits with a total length of 275,734 km. circuit. The offices connected to the Italian interurban network at 30 June 1932 were 2235. The interurban state and social conversations of about 12,000,000 carried out in 1922 reached about 29,000,000 in 1932 (with a percentage, in the state lines, of 1, 65% for state conversations; 11.94% stock exchange; 14.26% print; 72.15% of the public). International conversations over the same period rose from 280,000 to 1,430,000.
The urban telephone service, which in 1922 consisted of 439 urban networks and 132,372 subscribers, of which only 7,000 were automatic, as at 30 June 1932 comprised 957 networks with 339,364 directly connected subscribers, of which 268,100 automatic, equal to 79% of the total . On the same date, telephones in service reached 467,066 sets. The percentage of automatic subscribers is much higher than those reached by even the most advanced nations by telephone. The aforementioned urban networks include connections up to a maximum of 10 km. from the network center. The telephone stations in extension of urban networks, which in 1922 were 3410, reached the figure of 14,101 in 1932. The increase in subscribers and the development of the urban telephone service in general are mainly due to the automation of the service which, started first in large cities such as Turin, Milan, Genoa, Rome, it is now extended to 387 networks. In the main Italian cities, the concessionaire companies have organized a series of ancillary telephone services for the benefit of subscribers (exact time; railway timetable; sports news; museum hours; theaters and cinemas; various news; alarm clocks; surveillance of absent subscribers, etc. ).
Circular broadcasting . – The telephone broadcasting service began to develop in Italy from 1925, but received a notable increase only in the five-year period 1928-1933.
The following stations are currently in operation for the broadcasting service: Rome (2 stations: medium and short wave), Milan, Milan Vigentino, Genoa, Turin, Trieste, Florence, Naples, Bari, Palermo, Bolzano. The service is entrusted to the Italian Radio Auditions Authority (EIAR).
Telegraphic transmission of images . – The photo-telegraph service is performed in Italy, with the Siemens-Karolus apparatus and is allowed between Italy and Austria, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, Germany, England, Sweden, Hungary, United States of America. The phototelegraphic stations of the aforementioned states correspond by means of the international telephone cable network with the phototelegraphic station of Rome, the only one in Italy open to public service. Furthermore, all telegraph offices in the provincial capital accept phototelegrams which are forwarded to the Rome office by means of express registered mail.