Short for MC by Abbreviationfinder, Monaco is a monarchy where the regent, the prince, takes an active part in government work. The prince appoints the government and shares the legislative responsibility with the elected parliament. The princely title is inherited in the Grimaldi family since 1297.
A female succession was introduced in 2002, when the then Crown Prince Albert was unmarried and legal heirs to the throne were missing after him. The fundamental change meant that his sisters were in turn following him to inherit the throne.
- Countryaah: Total population and chart of Monaco for years of 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023 and 2024. Also covers population density, birth rate, death rate and population growth rates.
The Government Council (Conseil du gouvernement) appointed by the prince consists of one prime minister and five “heads of department” responsible for each area. The prime minister is appointed by the French government to propose three people, Frenchmen or monegasks, and the prince elects one of them.
The government is only responsible to the prince, not to the national council.
The National Council (Conseil national) is responsible for the legislation together with the prince. Its 24 members are elected in elections every five years. All constitutional amendments must be approved by the National Council. The Prince can dissolve the National Council at any time.
There are also three advisory bodies. The State Council (Conseil d’état) has twelve members who give advice on issues related to legislation. When it comes to constitutional issues and agreements with other states, the prince must consult with the Crown Council (Conseil de la couronne). Its seven members appointed by the prince must be Monegasque citizens. The members are approved by the National Council. The Economic and Social Council (Conseil economique et social) has 33 members representing, among other things, the social partners.
Local issues are handled by the municipal council (Conseil communal), which is led by a mayor. The council has 15 members who are elected in four years and chaired by a mayor.
All Monegas over the age of 18 have voting rights, but not foreigners, regardless of how long they have been living in Monaco.
Monaco lacks political parties in the usual sense, but at each election different groupings form lists of candidates. From 1963 and 40 years on, politics was completely dominated by the National Democratic Union (Union nationale et démocratique), which took all the seats in the National Council except on two occasions. UND represents Monaco’s old ruling families.
In the 2003 elections, UND was challenged by a new electoral list, an alliance of several groups that called themselves the Union of Monaco (L’Union pour Monaco, UPM), led by Stéphane Valeri, who was previously on the UND list. UPM won big, and managed to retain its dominant position in the 2008 elections. After that, a split in UPM, and the governing majority lost the elections in 2013. Then the new opposition alliance Horizon Monaco (Horizon Monaco, HM), and its leader Laurent Nouvion were elected new President of the National Council. Second place came the Monegasque Union (Monégasque Union, UM). A new party, the Renaissance, which consisted of employees of the principal employer of the Principality of the Société des Bains de Mer, also took a seat in the National Council. In the 2018 election, Stéphane Valeri returned at the head of a new electoral list, Priority Monaco (Priority Monaco, Primo), which captured all but three mandates.
The judiciary in Monaco is reminiscent of French. The highest judicial body is the Tribunal Suprême, whose seven members are nominated by the National Council but formally appointed by the prince.