According to TRACKAAH.COM, the demographic census of 1970 revealed a population of 33,823,918 residents, With an increase of approximately 3,500,000 units, equal to 11.7% compared to 1960. Registry estimates carried out in 1976 caused the total population to rise to 36,114.075 residents The increase was almost entirely absorbed by New Castile and the coastal provinces, which, thanks to the economic development of recent years, have attracted conspicuous migratory currents from inland regions; the latter, in the decade under consideration, lost 700,000-800,000 residents (about 300,000 in Extremadura alone). In the period 1962-70 internal territorial movements involved 3,544,351 people, while permanent emigrants were 673,651 and temporary ones 865,772.
The most conspicuous increases occurred around Madrid, which increased by 1,200,000 residents, in Catalonia (+ 1,225,000 residents), in Valencia (+ 692,000) and in the Basque Provinces (+ 637,000), where the process of renewal and expansion of the centers is truly exceptional. Also noteworthy is the demographic increase of the Balearic Islands (+ 116,500) and the Canary Islands (+ 216,500).
Economy. – The economy of the Spain has undergone a turning point starting from 1958-59, when the government took a more liberal position towards foreign countries, to attract investment and tourists, and started a certain programming of productive activities on the basis of four-year development plans. The most concrete results were obtained in the agricultural and tourism sectors.
In 1970 agriculture occupied 34% of the active population: a slightly higher rate than that set by the Plan de Desarollo Economico y Social, which provided for its reduction to less than 30%, encouraging mechanization to this end. Particular attention was paid to irrigation, within the framework of specific plans already established for some time (Jaén plans for the upper Guadalquivir valley, Badajoz for Extremadura, Aragon for the Ebro valley). However, despite the various damming and canalization works – including the large lock of Alcantara sul Tago (3135 million m 3) – the irrigated area is barely 5% of the territorial one.
As regards the use of the land, in 1976 the arable land occupied 15,821,000 ha, equal to 31.3% of the territorial surface (including the Balearic and Canary Islands), while the arborescent crops covered 9.9%. , permanent meadows and pastures 22.0%, forests and woods 29.6%, uncultivated and unproductive 7.2%.
About half of the arable land is cultivated with cereals, which, however, are undergoing a restructuring process compared to 1960.
In particular, the area invested with wheat has shrunk by more than half (2,772,000 ha in 1976), although the production of wheat has slightly reduced (41,760,000 q), while both the surface and the production of wheat have doubled. barley (3,240,000 ha, 51,630,000 q). The production of maize is also more than double, in the face of a more contained increase (40%) of its surface (442,000 ha). On the other hand, the variations relating to other cereals appear to be of little importance (rice: 65,000 ha, 3,950,000 q; oats: 454,000 ha, 5,050,000 q). Even in the category of other food plants there are no substantial changes, if we exclude vegetables, including tomatoes (74,000 ha, 19,330,000 q). Among the industrial crops, which are practiced on 800,000-900,000 ha, cotton has regressed (51,480 ha, 480,000 q of fiber, 810,000 q of seeds),
The development of irrigation has mainly favored the cultivation of citrus fruits, which have expanded into the coastal area between the Ebro estuary and Cartagena, often to the detriment of the vine, undoubtedly constituting the most important aspect of Spanish agricultural evolution: their production (17.730.000 q of oranges, 6.560.000 q of mandarins, 2.330.000 q of lemons, 60.000 q of grapefruit in 1976) is now the same as in Italy. The other woody crops are rather stationary, but are subject to qualitative improvements that increase their production: the vine, for example, while experiencing a reduction of about 200,000 ha, offers a production of more than double wine (40,000,000 hl) compared to 1960.
As for crops, a downsizing process is evident also for livestock breeding, which leads to a thinning of the sheep (15,745,000 head) and goat (2,339,000) herds on the internal plateaus, due to the reduction of winter pastures., while in the coastal areas, cattle (4,475,000) and, consequently, pigs (8,472,000) are increasing, mostly in sedentary forms and in small nuclei.
Finally, within the primary sector, an appreciable improvement in fishing should be noted: in 1976 in Spanish ports, including Ceuta, Melilla, the Balearic Islands and the Canary Islands, 1,483,162 t of fish were landed, i.e. double the quantity compared to that of 1959.
The economic development plan launched at the beginning of the last decade has given a decisive boost to the exploitation of underground resources, also intensifying the search for new minerals. In 1977 the traditional mining districts gave 11,712,000 tons of coal and 5,784,000 tons of lignite, 3,918,000 tons of iron content, 2,411,000 tons of pyrite, 1420 tons of mercury and other discrete quantities of non-ferrous minerals. (516 t of tin, 96,120 t of zinc, 18,120 t of copper, 3600 t of manganese). In the area of La Plana di Monrós (Lerida) a very rich deposit of uranium has been found, which in smaller quantities is also present elsewhere (Cáceres, Andujar, Ciudad Rodrigo, Hoja del Lobo), even if its exploitation is still limited (144 t of uranium oxide, U 3 O 8, in 1975). In 1964 the presence of oil was also ascertained, which is now extracted (1,224,000 t in 1977) in Poza de la Sal (Valladolid) and Ayoluengo (Burgos).
Almost all the minerals extracted, which until a decade ago were for the most part exported, are now processed by the local industry, which, on the contrary, is forced to import them. The basic industry is particularly strengthened. In 1977 the steel industry offered a production of 6,924,000 tons of pig iron and ferro-alloys and 10,932,000 tons of steel, against a quantity of less than 2 million tons in 1960, while the oil refining capacity was increased to about 69 million tons per year. The consequent development of manufacturing activities, in addition to coagulating in already industrialized areas, was channeled into the 5 poles of Seville, Valladolid, Vigo, La Coruña and Zaragoza. The greatest successes have been in the mechanical (automotive industry, machinery), food (sugar, beverages,
Industrial development has been favored by the increased availability of electricity: compared to 1960 the installed power has tripled (24,534,000 kW) and production quadrupled (82,385 million kWh in 1975), thanks above all to the contribution of new thermal systems., which arose mostly in the vicinity of recent refineries (Escombrera, Calle Mata, Cristóbal Colón), and nuclear power plants (Zorita and Vandellos, to which one is about to be added in Santa Maria de Garoña).
The most striking aspect of the Spain they renewed and expanded for the foreign industry: in 1977 the Spain was visited by 34,266,755 tourists, of which 1,980,000 belong to the Canaries.
The growing number of tourists has imposed the need to modernize and improve communication routes, which compared to 1960 have increased by about 1000 km of railways and over 25,000 km of rolling roads (1291 km of motorway). Also significant are the development of motor vehicles, which went from just 450,000 to over 5,300,000, and the increase in the gross tonnage of the merchant navy (from 1,800,721 to 6,027,673 t in 1976).
The foreign currency revenues due to tourism are unable to fill the large deficit in the trade balance: in the period 1974-77 the value of imported goods was equivalent to about double that of those exported. The largest export item continues to be that relating to food products (citrus fruits, wine, oil, preserves), followed by textile, chemical and petroleum products, while a considerable impact on imports is due to machinery and industrial plants. The most active exchanges take place with France, the United States, the Federal Republic of Germany, the United Kingdom and Italy.
Financial and economic policy. – Between 1962 and 1973 the pace of expansion of Spanish income was very strong, on average above 7%, while in the following period, in relation to the world crisis, it decreased and recorded a rate of 2.3% which, however, remains, albeit slightly, higher than the average for OECD countries. The rate of increase in the price level appeared worrying; the income deflator had increased by 6.4% in the period 1962-70, by 9.2% in 1970-73, by 16% in 1974-76 and by 22.5% in 1977. Two factors above all explain this phenomenon: on the one hand the increase in import prices, which up to 1973 had instead played a moderating role, on the other hand the acceleration of wage costs. Wage costs, which had increased on average by 22.5% over the period 1974-77,
The rapid development of the Spanish economy has been accompanied by an increasingly large presence of the public sector in the economy. Between 1960 and 1976 the ratio of public expenditure to national income increased from 19 to 23%. It is worth noting that spending on subsidies and transfers increased more than any other item of public expenditure in the 1960s. Until the end of the 1950s, subsidies to industry were almost entirely directed to public enterprises. In the following years the situation changed completely; in 1969 private enterprises received 50% of the total subsidies to industry. Although revenue through taxation has increased in absolute terms, the share of taxes on total revenue has changed little; in 1974 the direct and indirect taxation accounted for 57% of total revenue. Given the ever-increasing spending needs, public debt was used.
In 1977 the public deficit was contained within the limits of 127 billion pesetas thanks to a 30% increase in direct taxes. In the 1960s, monetary policy was used more frequently and more effectively than fiscal policy; however, as the Spanish money market was not sufficiently sophisticated, monetary policy mainly consisted of generalized credit squeezing.
Until 1973 the balance of payments was substantially in equilibrium thanks to the considerable revenues for tourism; the imbalances following the oil crisis were financed with massive recourse to foreign debt by both private and public operators. Nonetheless, official reserves were used and in 1975 a draft was carried out at the IMF oil counter. In February 1976 and July 1977 the peseta underwent two devaluations against the dollar, of 10 and 20% respectively.